free zones are the regional settlements within the political borders
of a given country, which are placed outside the customs boundaries,
where more incentives are offered to encourage industrial and
commercial activities when compared with other regions.
THE DEVELEOPMENT OF
FREE ZONES IN TURKEY
The initial attempt to establish a free zone in
Turkey was realized in 1927, with "Free Zones regional Legislation"
number 1132. In 1953 this legislation was replaced by Free Zones Law
number 6209. Iskenderun was deemed to be the appropriate location
and a free zone was established. During the period because the
commercial growth and structure of the Turkey could not support the
project, the activities were suspended.
However, the developments and the new structurings in the world
economy brought up once again the matter of the Free Zones subject
into the agenda.
First, within a reorganizational structure, the establishment of a
Free Zones Directorate within the Prime Ministry was decided upon in
Later on, the Free Zones were established as a Chairmanship within
the structure of the State Planning Organization. In an attempt to
reorganize the functions, initially the District Directorates were
established in 1985. With a Decree with the Force of Law published
in 1991, the Free Zones General Directorate and the District
Directorates were included into the structure of the Treasury and
Foreign Trade Undersecretariat.
Types of Free zones
according to their structures:
A - Free Zones where the land and infrastructure are
financed by the government, the superstructure is realized by the
investor - users and the operations is awarded to the private
sector. (eg.:Antalya, Mersin).
B - Free Zones established and operated by the private sector on the
land provided by the government and the superstructure installations
are realized by the investor - users. (e.g. Aegean, Adana -
C - Free Zones where the land, insfrastructure and the
superstructure are provided by the government and are operated by
the state. (e.g. Atatürk Airport).
D - Free Zones where the land, infrastructure financing is provided
by the private by the private sector, the superstructure is realized
by the investor - users, and the operation is awarded to the private
sector. (e.g. Istanbul - Thrace, Istanbul - Leather Industry,
Europe, Kayseri, Gaziantep, Menemen, Mardin )